The bone-joint structure of a person is characterized by a complex structure and includes various elements. The hip joint is one of the largest and most stressed joints in the human musculoskeletal system. It is located at the junction of the femur and pelvis. The joint has a special structure that ensures free mobility of the limb in different directions. It is with this joint that a person's ability to walk upright is associated. When pain occurs in the hip joint, there is a serious decrease in its functionality with problems when moving or sitting. In some cases, numbness of the limb is possible.
The main causes of pain
In order to start timely treatment of pathologies of the hip joint, it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive examination as early as possible in order to diagnose the diseases and the causes of their manifestation. At the same time, the diagnosis can be difficult, since pain is provoked by a wide variety of problems - injuries, skeletal diseases, background pathologies of internal organs. The intensity and nature of the pain also varies. They can be both painful and sharp, burning.
To the greatest extent, complaints of pain in the hip joint can be heard from patients over the age of 50. Moreover, such disorders usually occur in women. This refers to pathologies of the joint itself or the hip joint.
Pain can be caused by such factors that affect the state of the joint:
- Problems of traumatic origin - fractures affecting the neck of the femur, direct bruising of the joint area, intense dislocations of the hip joint. Myositis ossificans, arising and progressing due to joint injuries, can cause discomfort and pain. Specialists also note frequent fractures of the pelvic bones, the development of epiphysiolysis of the femoral head.
- Damage to the connective tissue in the hip joint caused by the development of Reiter's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis.
- Pathological disorders of articulation that occur against the background of degenerative processes in the tissue area. For example, we are talking about coxarthrosis.
- Osteochondropathic manifestations caused by the progression of osteochondritis dissecans, Legg-Calve-Perthes pathology.
- Deviations in the processes of skeletal development. For example, this applies to the epiphyseal varus deformity of the foot, which is characteristic of adolescent patients.
- Inflammatory changes in soft joint tissues. These pathologies include bursitis, transient synovitis, joint coxitis due to the action of the tubercle bacillus.
Traumatic causes of the pain syndrome
With the appearance of pain in the hip joint, attention should be paid to such pathologies of a traumatic nature that can cause them:
- Congenital damage to the hip joint in the form of a dislocation, which occurs due to an incorrect course of the birth process or is formed at the prenatal stage of the child's development. Such a disorder can be quickly diagnosed even in newborns. They will have irregularities in the gluteal folds and may show signs of shortening of one leg. In some cases, a pinched nerve occurs. Experts recommend paying special attention to the signs of such deviations, since the disease itself is considered dangerous. It often leads to the preservation of the consequences of the trauma until the end of life.
- Dislocation of the hip joint of a traumatic nature - sharp pains occur, as a result of which the ability to perform movements is lost. The patient cannot take a standing position or sit down. Edema and hematoma form in the area of the damaged joint. If there are signs of dislocation of the hip joint, then any physical activity is contraindicated. Sport during this period leads to deterioration of the patient's condition, causes the development of negative changes and pathological disorders in the hip joint. For such injuries, treatment should begin immediately.
- A fracture of the neck of the femur, which is usually characteristic of women over 60 years of age. This condition is caused by a fall or impact directed at the hip joint. When a fracture occurs, the patient feels a sharp pain syndrome. Such pain will increase during movement. Gradually, the pain radiates from the inner thigh. Swelling and hematoma appear at the site of injury. In the case of a fracture, shortening of the limbs is observed, a person's gait is characterized by lameness, clicks are heard in the area of the joint. The injury often causes a pinched nerve, resulting in numbness in the thigh.
- Fracture of the femur pertrochanteric type - accompanied by severe or moderate pain. When the patient is in motion, the pain begins to intensify. A possible consequence is a pinched nerve that causes back pain and numbness in the limbs.
- Getting a bruise in the hip joint. The pain syndrome is moderate, but active movement can provoke its increase. In this case, the pain decreases and disappears when a person is at rest. This factor is considered the most common. Bruises are diagnosed in patients who frequently fall, especially in the elderly. The patient complains of lameness, but this symptom disappears relatively quickly.
Hip injuries caused by trauma are considered by specialists to be the main cause of pain. For serious fractures and dislocations, surgical intervention is prescribed in many cases. An indication for immediate hospital admission is a pinched nerve and numbness of the limb.
The influence of systemic pathologies on the occurrence of pain
A common cause of pain in the hip joint when walking or in another position of the body is the development of systemic lesions of the connective tissue. Such pathologies require a constant process of therapy, since they belong to the group of practically incurable ones. It is important to ensure a comprehensive nature of treatment with an impact on the causes of the onset and progression of pain and other symptoms.
Among the systemic pathologies that can provoke pain in the hip joint include:
- Ankylosing spondylitis, which causes dull pain in the joint. Patients affected by this disease note an increase in negative symptoms at night. Usually the sensations are localized in the area of the sacrum or pelvis. The pain syndrome is able to give the knee joint, hip, groin area. Frequent shots are possible. In this condition, walking and other movements are difficult, the patient shows stiffness. The pain in the hip area is strong, the joint is affected by the inflammatory process.
- Reiter's syndrome - accompanied by damage to the joint part, as well as the organs of the genitourinary system. In parallel, an inflammatory process takes place in the conjunctiva. It is an autoimmune disease that is caused by the action of an intestinal infection. The development of the pathological process can begin several weeks and even months after the penetration of pathogens into the body. Patients complain of acute pain in the thighs. The pain syndrome also affects the joints. This leads to an increase in body temperature. There is swelling in the pelvic region on the left and right. This pathology is usually associated with the symmetrical nature of joint damage.
- Arthritis of the rheumatoid type, in which damage to the connective tissue is observed. The process of development of the disease does not cause the formation and release of purulent masses. Usually, the pathology becomes a harbinger, which indicates the possibility of developing coxarthrosis of the hip joint. The disease progresses gradually, although the initial symptoms are swelling and swelling. The patient begins to complain of discomfort during movement, the pain is piercing. An inflammatory process takes place in the joint, which leads to an increase in general and local temperature. Further development of changes is accompanied by stiffness of movements, activation of the pain syndrome in the side lying position. The pathology in most cases develops symmetrically. Destruction of the hip joint leads to pinching of the nerve and numbness in the limbs. A rapid initiation of the therapeutic process is necessary.
Pathologies of a systemic nature often cause a lot of inconvenience to patients. There are pains of different intensity and character. They can be sharp, sharp, pulling. It is very difficult to get rid of such discomfort on your own, even finding the body at rest does not help. Therefore, targeted treatment is necessary, especially when pathology is detected in newborns. Ignoring symptoms can worsen a person's condition.
Pain caused by degenerative diseases
Often, patients note the presence of sharp, burning or pulling pains in the joints, but they have not suffered injuries and have not been diagnosed with autoimmune diseases. In this case, the cause may be degenerative changes caused by such diseases:
- Epiphyseal varus deformity, which is most common among adolescents. The pains are dull and pulling, they can be given in the inner area of the knee joint. Increased sensations occur when running or during other sports activities. Shootings are periodically observed, clicks are heard in the joint.
- Coxarthrosis, which is considered a fairly common pathology of the hip joint. A disorder can be detected in patients regardless of their gender. The disease requires long and complex therapy. It causes active progression of degenerative and destructive joint disorders. The main symptom is reduced to the feeling that the joint hurts after physical exertion. At rest, these sensations disappear, there are no restrictions in movements. Subsequently, the pain radiates to the groin and thigh area. With daily stress, this symptomatology increases, although it disappears at rest. With prolonged walking, lameness begins to appear, clicks are heard in the joint. At the same time, there is a malfunction in the work of the muscle-tendon structures, the tone drops. The last stage of the development of the pathology is characterized by the appearance of pain even at rest, especially at night. Severe pain is combined with severe lameness and muscle atrophy. This leads to immobilization of the patient. In the last stage, the treatment is aimed at inhibiting the destructive changes in the joint.
The development of degenerative pathologies provokes permanent lameness, which leads to a violation of labor functions and a drop in productivity. Lack of physical activity worsens the patient's condition. Over time, difficulties arise even with the usual getting out of bed.
Influence of inflammation and infections on the onset of pain
The appearance of discomfort can be associated not only with direct damage to the bone structures of the joint, but also with inflammatory processes in the muscles, tendons and joint bag.
Pathological processes are also caused by such infectious diseases:
- Purulent arthritis. The disease is accompanied by an increase in general temperature and redness of the skin in the joint area. There is the appearance of extensive swelling with sharp or sharp pain. It is difficult, and sometimes simply impossible, to perform any loads. Over time, the sensations took the form of skirmishes. These changes require immediate treatment to prevent the development of sepsis.
- Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, which usually develops in young and middle-aged men. The disease is activated due to blood circulation disorders in the joint area. Necrosis leads to the death of tissue cells. The pathological process manifests itself in a sharp pain syndrome that spreads to the groin area, as well as a burning sensation in the damaged areas. The intensity of the pain can be so strong that a person can hardly support the limb. This leads to problems getting out of bed. An analgesic injection is used to anesthetize the joint. Symptoms disappear after some time, but further progression of the disease provokes atrophy of muscles and tendons. A person begins to limp, his gait changes.
- Tuberculous arthritis. The pathology has a different manifestation in young children with a weakened immune system. Progression is very slow. The child has increased fatigue, he is inactive in games. Muscle atrophy is accompanied by clicking in the joint and shortening of the limb. After some time, pains appear in the joint, which have a pulling or burning character. The joint is covered with suppuration with increased symptoms.
- Bursitis is an inflammatory lesion covering the bursa of the joint. The main symptom is pain spreading along the limb. Sharp pains increase during movement. At rest, the limb hurts, burns.
Due to the development of infectious processes, various pains occur in the hip joint. It can be burning, pulling or dull discomfort. The intensity of the sensations can be high, and because of this, a person experiences difficulties with a night's rest. This condition requires immediate treatment.
Diagnosis of pathologies
Complex diagnostics, which should include:
- ultrasound examination of the condition of the hip joint;
- x-ray examination in two projections;
- laboratory examination of blood parameters based on general and biochemical analysis, which helps to identify rheumatoid factors, an increase in the number of leukocytes, a change in the sedimentation rate of erythrocytes;
- general examination of the patient with fixation of complaints and palpation of the damaged area;
- MRI diagnosis.
Based on the results of the examination, the correct diagnosis is determined and complex treatment of pathologies that provoke a pain syndrome is prescribed.
Features of treatment
If infrequent or intermittent pain occurs, the symptom should not be ignored. In this condition, you should consult a doctor and start treatment. The therapeutic process is determined by the cause that causes the pain.
Presence of congenital dislocation
In such a pathology, a special orthopedic device is placed in the area of the baby's joint. This can be stirrups or spacers. In some cases, the use of a Frejka pillow is recommended. Thanks to these designs, the baby's legs are in a physiologically correct position. The child wears these means for 6 months, sometimes longer.
When conventional therapies are ineffective, surgery may be indicated. Operatively, the femoral head is reduced and some accompanying defects are eliminated. After removing the orthopedic devices, light massage procedures are prescribed to strengthen the muscle structures.
Such damage requires the use of drugs to eliminate muscle tone and reposition. Subsequently, the patient should be at rest to stabilize the structures. If there are complaints of numbness, this will mean a pinched nerve. In this case, you will need to consult a neurologist.
The treatment of this trauma is carried out by a traumatologist with surgical manipulations. Conservative methods of treatment are possible, but often they do not bring the desired effect. In the absence of the possibility of surgery, a plaster cast is applied to the patient from the lumbar sector to the heel.
It is important to remember that the most severe effects are seen in older patients. Their fractures usually do not grow, and the recovery period itself lasts several months.
In addition, disability leads to many consequences. The patients have impaired functionality of the respiratory organs, disturbances in the cardiovascular system, which is due to the lack of conditions for an active lifestyle and normal movement. Patients experience problems with sitting, resulting in a burning sensation in the soft tissue area as a result of the fracture.
During the operation, the head and body of the bone are fixed with pins and screws. Endoprosthesis technology is used.
The development of Bekhterev's syndrome
The treatment of this pathology requires an integrated approach that allows to reduce the intensity of the manifestation of symptoms caused by inflammatory diseases. In the course of therapy, drugs are taken - anti-inflammatory drugs, hormonal drugs, immunosuppressants. Physiotherapy is also carried out.
A course of physical exercises to stretch the muscles is also prescribed. In this condition, massage is useful - the joint is treated from the left or right side, depending on the manifestation of the disease.
The therapeutic process is determined by the attending physician based on the nature of the development of the pathology and the patient's condition. Swimming will help strengthen muscle structures. If the disease has passed into a severe form, then the joint replacement procedure is performed.
Treatment of this disease without the use of antibiotics is impossible. Anti-inflammatory drugs are also prescribed. In the therapeutic process, the place of glucocorticosteroids, agents that suppress the activity of the immune system, ointments for local application should be determined.
The duration of treatment is not less than 4-5 months. At the same time, the probability of relapse is high. The course of treatment should be accompanied by measures to maintain muscle tone through physical activity, for example by stretching.
Arthritis of the rheumatoid type
Due to the progression of arthritis, pain may occur not only when moving the joint, but also at rest. It is impossible to completely eliminate such pain. The therapeutic effect is aimed at improving the quality of life of patients. For this purpose, prescribe drugs:
- hormonal drugs;
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- antirheumatic drugs.
Surgical intervention is prescribed only when the disease passes into the last stage. In this condition, the patient experiences serious problems in walking and sitting. Surgical manipulations are performed using the method of fixation or joint arthroplasty. In the recovery process, stretching exercises, external ointments are prescribed.
The therapy of this pathology is aimed at eliminating the causes of its manifestation. In the early stages, the disease can be cured by conservative therapy with the appointment of:
- means that restore blood flow;
- pain relievers;
- local ointments with a warming effect.
The treatment complex also includes low-intensity exercises. For anesthesia of the joint, if necessary, injections are used.
In the last stages of progression of the pathology, conservative treatment methods are ineffective. In this state, deterioration of well-being occurs with minimal stress. Getting out of bed requires anesthesia with injections. Treatment is performed surgically due to joint arthroplasty. Elderly patients are not prescribed such a procedure, but are limited to auxiliary manipulations.
After the operation, the rehabilitation process begins. Non-intense stretching, light training with low load are carried out.
Treatment of inflammatory diseases and infections
The therapeutic process is determined by the nature of the disease and its manifestations:
- In case of purulent arthritis, anesthesia of the hip joint is performed by introducing an analgesic into the joint area. It can include several types of drugs at the same time. An antibacterial agent is used in combination with an antibiotic. Pustules are also removed. To ensure the fixation of the limb, a cast is applied or a splint is used.
- Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head requires normalization of blood circulation and resorption of dead zones. NSAIDs are used to relieve pain. The therapeutic plan includes vitamins, drugs that reduce blood viscosity. Massages and anesthetic ointments will help to get rid of painful pains. In parallel, physiotherapy and exercises are prescribed. In severe cases of the disease, minimally invasive operations or arthroplasty are performed.
- Bursitis requires quick relief of joint pain. At the same time, an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug is prescribed, which is administered intramuscularly. Steroid drugs help to eliminate severe symptoms of discomfort and pain. The affected joint should be at rest.
- Conservative treatment methods are used for tuberculous arthritis. The baby needs to be still and therefore a tight bandage is used. The appearance of an abscess in the area of soft tissues requires removal.
Using recipes from traditional medicine
These remedies can be used as an adjunct to traditional treatment. You should always consult your doctor first. The most popular recipes include:
- Compresses based on blue or white clay. They help to eliminate swelling and minimize pain. Make a compress with huma before going to bed and leave it overnight. On top, the damaged area is wrapped with a warm piece of cloth.
- Compresses with cabbage and honey. It is necessary to take a cabbage leaf and cover it with a layer of honey. After that, such a compress is applied to the area of manifestation of burning or sharp pain. It should be covered with a film on top and then insulated with a woolen scarf or scarf. The duration of the procedures is up to 1 month. Between manipulations, it is recommended to rub and stroke the affected area.
- Ointment with visceral fat and white leg root. 250 g of crushed root is poured into pre-melted fat and boiled on low heat for 7 minutes. Allow the product to cool, then apply to the surface of the joint and leave overnight. A woolen cloth is applied to the treated area. Thus, it will be possible to eliminate puffiness and other symptoms.
- A remedy of 2 lemons, 300 g of celery root, 130 g of garlic will help get rid of severe pain in the tendon area. The components must be finely chopped and poured into a container with a lid. Pour the composition with boiling water and stir, then wrap the container and leave overnight. Use 1 tsp before meals for 1-3 months.